Weather Element: Temperature and Precipitation

At the end of today’s lesson, you will be able to:

1. Make calculations for mean monthly temperature, mean annual temperature, annual temperature range and total annual rainfall.

2. Use appropriate graphs and diagrams to represent weather data.

Task #1 : Gathering Data

You will need to find out the mean monthly temperature and the mean monthly rainfall for the city that has been assigned to you group.

Take note of the latitude and altitude of the city as well.

Use this website, to gather your data.

Record all the the data in your worksheet. Make calculations when necessary. Use the formula found on pg. 74 of your textbook.

Cities Assigned to Groups

Group 1: Kisumu, Kenya

Group 2: London, United Kingdom

Group 3: Darjeeling, India

Group 4: Fairbanks, Alaska

Group 5: Vitim, Russia

Group 6: Buenos Aires, Argentina

Group 7: Bangkok, Thailand

Task #2: Presenting Data

Using the data gathered, create your own climographs using the graph paper paper provided.

Refer to the sample closely to create your climographs


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Divergent (Constructive) Plate Boundary

At divergent plate boundaries, plates move away from each other.

1. Oceanic-oceanic divergence


mid ocean

In your notebook:

Explain how oceanic-oceanic divergent boundaries are formed using the following keywords in the popplet.

Begin your answer with the following phrase:

When two oceanic plates diverge………


Pitstop 4 (pg 12)

2. Continental-continental divergence





1.Suggest some words that can be used to describe the process of continental-continental divergence.

2.Using the words you have suggested, explain how continental-continental divergent boundaries are formed. Begin your answer with the following phrase:

When two continental plates diverge…….

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Why tectonic plates move? Convection Currents

What is convection currents?

1. Convection currents are movements of heat within the mantle. Materials in the mantle are heated by the core. The heat will cause the mantle material to expand, rise and spread out beneath the plates.


Video animation of convection currents:

Describing the process:

2. The hot mantle material will cool slightly and sinks, pulling the plates along.

3.The sinking mantle material will heat up again as it nears the core and the whole process repeats.

4. As a result, plates will be dragged along or move away from each other.

Slab-pull force

A slab-pull force will cause a denser oceanic plate to be forced beneath a less dense continental plate or oceanic plate in  a process called subduction.

As the plate subducts, it will pull the rest of the plates along.

Downward moving and rising portion of convection currents

The subducting plate will drive the downward moving portion of the convection currents.

At the other end of the convection current, the mantle material will drive the rising portion of the convection currents

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Internal Structure of the Earth

1. The earth is more complex than just the crust, mantle and core!


2. To the earth’s core!

3. How do we know how the internal structure of the earth looks like?

Scientists study the path of seismic waves! When waves pass through materials of different density, it will bend. As it bends, the waves will reach the seismograph (the machine that records wave movements) at different times.

Watch the video if you want to know more!

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Homework (7 January)

Dear class

Here are the list of things that you have to complete before Friday (10 January)

1. Jigsaw Puzzle Worksheet

2. Online Exercise: ‘What is a Natural Hazard?’

3. Reply to the blog post – What would you like to know about the topic on Tectonic Hazards?

4. Read textbook pg. 5-9.

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What is a Natural Hazard?

A natural hazard is a naturally occurring event that damages human lives and cause damages to property.

It can be classified as tectonic related or climate related.

Your task:

1. Explore this website which shows different natural hazards occurring within the month at different parts of the world.

  • Click on a particular location and it will provide brief details of the type of natural hazard, date and location.
  • Click on the picture and it gives a detailed description of the hazard.

2. Your task is to categorize the hazards appropriately (tectonic or climate related) and justify your decisions.

Download this word document (here) and fill up the table.

Save the file as Name_Class (E.g. Sandy_3N4)

Email your completed work to

3. What would you like to find out about natural hazards? Comment in the reply thread below. Don’t forget to leave your names!

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Introduction to Tectonic Hazards

Maps and infographics on Natural disasters.

1. Distribution of natural disasters.



2. When Plates Collide

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